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Types of Engine Oil Pump Used in Various Industries

The oil pump is a mechanical device used in engines to circulate oil to moving parts such as bearings, camshafts, and pistons to prevent wear and tear. It is one of the critical components of an engine lubrication system that must not fail or malfunction, or else the engine will fail.

The main engine lube oil pump is usually found inside the crankcase, below the oil level. The oil pump’s function is to supply oil under pressure to the various engine parts that need lubrication.

The following are the different types of oil pumps in use:

● Gear Type Pump 

It is made up of two meshing spur gears enclosed in housing. Between the gear teeth and the housing, there is very little space. One gear is attached to a shaft, driven by the engine’s camshaft or crankshaft via appropriate gears.

The other gear can freely rotate on its bearing. When the pump is turned on, oil is drawn from the inlet side between the gear teeth, carried around between the gears and the pump housing, and forced out from the outlet side. The speed of the gears determines the amount and pressure of oil supplied by the pump. Because of its ease of construction, this type of pump is almost universally used in automotive engines. A pressure relief valve is provided to relieve excessive pressure caused by high engine speed or clogged oil lines in the engine oil pump.

Twin Gear Pump

In place of gears, it consists of an inner and outer rotor within the pump body, resulting in two lobes meshing internally. The oil is displaced from the inlet to the outlet side with a gear pump. The inner four-lobe rotor drives the outer five-lobe rotor slower, causing a depression as the rotor lobes separate. This happens opposite the inlet, so oil enters the space between the inner and outer rotors, and as the lobes recombine, the oil between them is forced up between the two rotors and out of the outlet.

Plunger Type Pump

It is made up of a sliding plunger or piston is propelled by a camshaft eccentric and reciprocates in the pump body, acting as cylinders. A non-return valve is installed in the body’s oil-submerged bottom—the plunger suckers oil from the inlet through the valve as it moves up. The oil is forced out through the outlet as it moves down because the inlet valve is closed and the delivery valve is open. This type of pump is only found in a few places, primarily on stationary engines.

Front Cover Oil Pump

The front cover oil engine water pump may also be internal or external. It is frequently installed in front of the engine cover. It works the same way as a rotor pump, with inner drive gear and an outer rotor. The inner drive is directly mounted on the crankshaft in this case.

The direct-drive approach eliminates a separate pump drive shaft. The pump rotates at the same speed as the engine. As a result, more pressure is generated at idle than with a camshaft or distributor-driven pump. Engine oil pumps are found on most overhead cam engines and late model pushrod engines.


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